“Time is definitely the fire we burn in.” And though we could not be able to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempt to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance becomes a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The internal environment of Lng vehicle cylinder is actually a world apart, a reminder in the ultimate heat-death that must befall our universe in the eons into the future.
For those who aim to discover truths concerning the workings of the cell, holding back the floodgates of your time is an issue of significant proportions. Scientists are usually enthusiastic about very specific cell properties that transpire at critical junctions from the life of a cell. Holding these processes at bay while their properties might be exploited is akin to the problem of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been used as you answer to the situation of your slow burn. By reducing temperatures of samples for the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature at which all metabolic activity goes to a halt, scientists can easily seclude moments soon enough, returning over and over to investigate that instant in the past.
Not surprisingly, cryogenics is becoming a significant industry that creates customized products for nearly every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the market in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, storage containers, and dewars in every single size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With your a wide variety of products to pick from knowledge of which ones are most effective may elude the typical consumer. To be able to provide an introduction to the main producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will likely be profiled on this page.
Ultra-low lab freezers are one of those things which many people never think of until they quit working. Built to run for a long time without interruption in service, lab freezers will be the quiet sentinels in the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch across the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists attempt to avoid the very thought of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory of the day when it did. A career’s amount of samples may be lost in one afternoon– years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the ground. Despite the fact that such a scenario looms ominously inside the periphery of each and every researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for the day whenever it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have got great pains to make sure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that are intended to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is definitely the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in the refrigerators. Although the gas industry has used this technique for years, MMR Technologies was the first company to patent the technology and adapt it for tiny, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
Just how the Kleemenko cycle works is that a mixture of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is permitted to expand by way of a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, along with the cool gas passes back up the warmth exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. More than one liquid-vapor separators might be incorporated in the cycle so that the expansion of the liquid may be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is actually a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is designed for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the body parts. The device allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and furthermore, as they have an inside power supply you can use it for that transportation of samples from storage facility to look into laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the demand for controlled temperature ramping.
“As being a user you need to be aware of minimum temperature and exactly how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling helps to ensure that uniform temperatures happen to be maintained through the cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, which is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are designed for biological samples at temperatures right down to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages can be preserved for prolonged periods. Locking lids are supplied to be able to protect samples from accidental being exposed to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are helpful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits a lot of its ultralow freezing capabilities to its heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The heat-conducting quality with this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to perform longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer can perform holding samples below the crystallization point.
In keeping with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also relies on a special mixture of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and enable on-site recycling. Additionally, a built-in timer cycles the low stage compressor every one day, turning it away in order that the capillary tubing will likely be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. features a long tradition of creating ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. The truth is, with 4 decades of expertise under its belt, So-Low is amongst the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the business. Once the Montreal Protocol started the phase from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was the first to work with Dupont Suva 95, the latest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler together with less pressure than CFCs. In addition to its investigation of eco-friendly refrigerants, So-Low has additionally developed a modern compressor which is designed only for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units as an alternative to the standard cylindrical containers. Every one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy accessibility, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, and a storage system adjusts to accommodate an array of tube sizes. Forma also provides a patented double door unit that separates long-term from everyday storage.
Revco is among the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers exceeding 50 years of expertise in the business. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as little as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be purchased in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions for the external and internal environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. Furthermore, it carries a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil from your evaporating coils.
Sanyo is manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers more than two decades, starting with its production of the 1st -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the creation of the very first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the first manufacturer to offer a complete selection of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers on the market today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are designed for use in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The phrase dewar, originally put on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is already applied to a variety of insulated vessels designed for repair of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending upon their size, dewars usually rest on to the floor or take a seat on tabletops where samples can be accessed. Due to the quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures so long as twelve months without having to be regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The standard thermal wall includes an aluminum or steel sandwich filled with polyurethane. The size and configuration of dewars vary to this kind of extent that many companies build custom dewars to acquire. A number of these companies along with their merchandise is reviewed in the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE made laboratory freezers for a wide variety of applications. Of course, animal breeders are only a small portion of its customers. Blood and cell storage along with organ shipment are an equally large component of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the fastest-growing section of the marketplace for the company’s products.
MVE was the very first company to produce biological freezers competent at maintaining a -190°C environment for the full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that time MVE has released the entire line of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are designed for handling as many as 36,000 vials at temperatures only -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are designed for cells that may be stored at -125°C but will become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers are also useful for storing hazardous materials that could cross-communicate in the liquid medium, for example contaminated-blood bags which are prone to break open.
Quantum Technology can be a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the United States and Germany. Its product line includes from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
According to Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, one way his company has were able to remain competitive is as simple as offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is because they may be customized.
One among Quantum Technology’s most favored products is really a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is simply $4 or $5 per liter, in lots of countries away from Canada And America and Europe, the expense of purchasing helium is a concern of concern. That is among the reasons why Quantum Technology makes an effective two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator in which the helium is retained within the system. The helium using this refrigerator is reliquified for usage again and again.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, provides a Thermo-Flask line of products that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless-steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different models are available with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and each one of these models is accessible having a 24-month warranty. Other special features of the Thermo-Flask line of products include vented lids in order to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to deliver coolant retention for samples saved in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, that happen to be distributed by a number of companies throughout the United States. The Bio-Cane systems can be found in five sizes and provide features for example super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems are available in four sizes and possess capacities as much as 6,000 vials. As well as a number of the standard features present in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks using a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, and an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates experience of liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes many different traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made from borosilicate glass covered by a protective mesh, as well as every wide-mouth model features a vented polyethylene stopper to lower evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can also be jacketed in aluminum casing for additional safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suited for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times above 14 days. All of these units come provided with the lowest-evaporation stopper, a totally shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Alternatives for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International definitely makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars that enable the researcher to hold large quantities of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each one of these units is complemented by its very own inventory control system, which is designed to maximize the number of vials that could be safely arranged in to a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials might be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are some of the most often used and least considered implements from the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out a day. Then it is time to go shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is usually guided by three primary issues, the initial which concerns the challenge of if they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials propose that material is trapped throughout the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents in the internally threaded sort reason that externally threaded vials will be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although research has been conducted in an effort to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, along with the debate proceeds.
Yet another consideration which comes into consideration when purchasing cryogenic tubes is definitely the material that they are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they be more difficult to warm which could negatively impact the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes will also be contaminated with releasing fluids throughout the molding process. However, releasing fluids can be removed together with the good care, and some companies like Axygen are looking at new polished molds that do not require using releasing fluids. Glass, alternatively, warms rapidly but can also be subjected to fracture due to microchannels which could form inside the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or perhaps violent explosions. Plastic vials can also be vunerable to nitrogen penetration but the opportunity of explosion will not be as great.
Gasketing has been a challenge of some contention within this industry. Many cryovials have a washer that keeps the inner pressure in the vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas in the tube is sufficient force cells and fluid through the lids of countless non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is often preferred as being the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is also used, it has a tendency to reduce its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a problem which had been demonstrated if the “O” rings about the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, gives a large selection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that can be used at temperatures only -190°C. Intended for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come designed with attached leak proof caps that consist of a dual lip and a silicon washer. A special ridge on each cap makes handling easier, leading to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts together with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® model of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, and also other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be purchased in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and 3.5 ml sizes are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also has a wide array of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. These include polypropylene tubes, which can be combined with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and are pressure tested in the vacuum chamber to guarantee the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has recently developed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to use in lipid fractionation studies. It really is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube by having an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. Among the outstanding attributes of this tube is it is entirely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a variety of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which can be silicone gasketed and guaranteed for use inside a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and they are certified to become sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, even though the System 100 vials are certain to be leakproof in a microcentrifuge approximately 8,000 g and through shipment and transport. However, the organization warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase can lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have provided CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for almost every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it offers developed an extensive catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be purchased in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made from Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that could be hermetically sealed. These are typically best suited for the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like all the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that happen to be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction causes them to be exceptionally durable, and they are often flame sealed or stored having a range of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a number of polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come built with many different features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and straightforward-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are available with selected styles. Each one of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures that happen to be designed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene with no mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added only at the request in the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions for example iron, chromium, or nickel which can be typical constituents of dyes. All of the company’s vials is made to snap closed in the locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports create the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system incorporates a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees how the microtube is aligned within the centrifuge rotor being re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes which can be suitable for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that could come in a big selection of sizes, shapes, and colors. An individual has the choice of selecting from various externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps which might be colored for identification. All of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, along with the polypropylene material from which they are constructed enables them to endure subfreezing temperatures along with temperatures and pressures within an autoclave. Among the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular attention to in developing its brand of products is the need for cryogenic vials that have reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be bought in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes may be put through a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and every one of its O-ring sealed tubes continues to be sterilized.
Storage inventory systems really are a critical component of any long-term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they might undergo changes which make them challenging to keep trace. Labels may become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes can be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. One of the more popular options for containing samples will be the canister and cane. By using this technique, several vials are enclosed in a long aluminum shaft that is certainly submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be simply manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage which could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer product is usually preferred. Although drawer systems often expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility of the system reduces exposure a chance to ambient temperatures causing less evaporation from the freezer, plus lessens the researcher’s being exposed to possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are made to optimize the amount of storage space afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The regular inventory configuration is really a cardboard or steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems allow the user to set up up to 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International is an expert in making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Created for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be found in numerous sizes, shapes, and colors to put almost any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to get viewed without opening the containers, and they may be adjusted in particular models to support tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that contain storage racks for holding up to 267 microtubes. These drawers may be installed in any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a number of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. They are keyed to stop misalignment and supply temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless-steel retainer systems suitable for all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They offer vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for convenient retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for the increasing variety of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic ISO Tank Container has responded with boxes and racks which can be constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids as a way to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is amongst the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic storage containers. In reality, many of its goods are sold as standard accessories with a few of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are built from stainless-steel and can include a selection of cardboard, aluminum, or steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be purchased as individual units or as complete racks for use in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Almost certainly, the cryogenic products one buys today could be the same ones that can be used for years to come. An investment made today may last for a decade. In effect, researchers buying CNG Trailer are not only buying products for themselves, they are buying for their successors. The buyer should think about what might 46dexkpky throughout years if their samples become degraded or contaminated as a result of improper storage. A little money which was saved initially by scrimping on vials or freezers may not seem like the best downside when valuable samples are lost. In spite of the safeguards integrated to the majority of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these items important. Appointing a lasting position that is responsible for the cryogenic safety of the laboratory’s biological collection is probably the best ways to assure the integrity of such samples.